49 Most Interesting Biology Research Topics

August 21, 2023

biology research topics

In need of the perfect biology research topics—ideas that can both showcase your intellect and fuel your academic success? Lost in the boundless landscape of possible biology topics to research? And afraid you’ll never get a chance to begin writing your paper, let alone finish writing? Whether you’re a budding biologist hoping for a challenge or a novice seeking easy biology research topics to wade into, this blog offers curated and comprehensible options.

And if you’re a high school or transfer student looking for opportunities to immerse yourself in biology, consider learning more about research opportunities for high school students, top summer programs for high school students, best colleges for studying biomedical engineering, and best colleges for studying biology.

What is biology?

Well, biology explores the web of life that envelops our planet, from the teeny-tiny microbes to the big complex ecosystems. Biology investigates the molecular processes that define existence, deciphers the interplay of genes, and examines all the dynamic ways organisms interact with their environments. And through biology, you can gain not only knowledge, but a deeper appreciation for the interconnectedness of all living things. Pretty cool!

There are lots and lots of sub-disciplines within biology, branching out in all directions. Throughout this list, we won’t follow all of those branches, but we will follow many. And while none of these branches are truly simple or easy, some might be easier than others. Now we’ll take a look at a few various biology research topics and example questions that could pique your curiosity.

Climate change and ecosystems

The first of our potentially easy biology research topics: climate change and ecosystems. Investigate how ecosystems respond and adapt to the changing climate. And learn about shifts in species distributions, phenology, and ecological interactions.

1) How are different ecosystems responding to temperature changes and altered precipitation patterns?2) What are the implications of shifts in species distributions for ecosystem stability and functioning?

2) Or how does phenology change in response to climate shifts? And how do those changes impact species interactions?

3) Which underlying genetic and physiological mechanisms enable certain species to adapt to changing climate conditions?

4) And how do changing climate conditions affect species’ abilities to interact and form mutualistic relationships within ecosystems?

Microbiome and human health

Intrigued by the relationship between the gut and the rest of the body? Study the complex microbiome. You could learn how gut microbes influence digestion, immunity, and even mental health.

5) How do specific gut microbial communities impact nutrient absorption?

6) What are the connections between the gut microbiome, immune system development, and susceptibility to autoimmune diseases?

7) What ethical considerations need to be addressed when developing personalized microbiome-based therapies? And how can these therapies be safely and equitably integrated into clinical practice?

8) Or how do variations in the gut microbiome contribute to mental health conditions such as anxiety and depression?

9) How do changes in diet and lifestyle affect the composition and function of the gut microbiome? And what are the subsequent health implications?

Urban biodiversity conservation

Next, here’s another one of the potentially easy biology research topics. Examine the challenges and strategies for conserving biodiversity in urban environments. Consider the impact of urbanization on native species and ecosystem services. Then investigate the decline of pollinators and its implications for food security or ecosystem health.

10) How does urbanization influence the abundance and diversity of native plant and animal species in cities?

11) Or what are effective strategies for creating and maintaining green spaces that support urban biodiversity and ecosystem services?

12) How do different urban design and planning approaches impact the distribution of wildlife species and their interactions?

13) What are the best practices for engaging urban communities in biodiversity conservation efforts?

14) And how can urban agriculture and rooftop gardens contribute to urban biodiversity conservation while also addressing food security challenges?


Are you a problem solver at heart? Then try approaching the intersection of engineering, biology, and medicine. Delve into the field of synthetic biology, where researchers engineer biological systems to create novel organisms with useful applications.

15) How can synthetic biology be harnessed to develop new, sustainable sources of biofuels from engineered microorganisms?

16) And what ethical considerations arise when creating genetically modified organisms for bioremediation purposes?

17) Can synthetic biology techniques be used to design plants that are more efficient at withdrawing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere?

18) How can bioengineering create organisms capable of producing valuable pharmaceutical compounds in a controlled and sustainable manner?

19) But what are the potential risks and benefits of using engineered organisms for large-scale environmental cleanup projects?


Interested in learning more about what makes creatures tick? Then this might be one of your favorite biology topics to research. Explore the neural mechanisms that underlie complex behaviors in animals and humans. Shed light on topics like decision-making, social interactions, and addiction. And investigate how brain plasticity and neurogenesis help the brain adapt to learning, injury, and aging.

20) How does the brain’s reward circuitry influence decision-making processes in situations involving risk and reward?

21) What neural mechanisms underlie empathy and social interactions in both humans and animals?

22) Or how do changes in neural plasticity contribute to age-related cognitive decline and neurodegenerative diseases?

23) Can insights from neurobiology inform the development of more effective treatments for addiction and substance abuse?

24) What are the neural correlates of learning and memory? And how can our understanding of these processes be applied to educational strategies?

Plant epigenomics

While this might not be one of the easy biology research topics, it will appeal to plant enthusiasts. Explore how epigenetic modifications in plants affect their ability to respond and adapt to changing environmental conditions.

25) How do epigenetic modifications influence the expression of stress-related genes in plants exposed to temperature fluctuations?

26) Or what role do epigenetic changes play in plants’ abilities to acclimate to changing levels of air pollution?

27) Can certain epigenetic modifications be used as indicators of a plant’s adaptability to new environments?

28) How do epigenetic modifications contribute to the transgenerational inheritance of traits related to stress resistance?

29) And can targeted manipulation of epigenetic marks enhance crop plants’ ability to withstand changing environmental conditions?

Conservation genomics

Motivated to save the planet? Conservation genomics stands at the forefront of modern biology, merging the power of genetics with the urgent need to protect Earth’s biodiversity. Study genetic diversity, population dynamics, and how endangered species adapt in response to environmental changes.

30) How does genetic diversity within endangered species influence their ability to adapt to changing environmental conditions?

31) What genetic factors contribute to the susceptibility of certain populations to diseases, and how can this knowledge inform conservation strategies?

32) How can genomic data be used to inform captive breeding and reintroduction programs for endangered species?

33) And what are the genomic signatures of adaptation in response to human-induced environmental changes, such as habitat fragmentation and pollution?

34) Or how can genomics help identify “hotspots” of biodiversity that are particularly important for conservation efforts?

Zoonotic disease transmission

And here’s one of the biology research topics that’s been on all our minds in recent years. Investigate the factors contributing to the transmission of zoonotic diseases, like COVID-19. Then posit strategies for prevention and early detection.

35) What are the ecological and genetic factors that facilitate the spillover of zoonotic pathogens from animals to humans?

36) Or how do changes in land use, deforestation, and urbanization impact the risk of zoonotic disease emergence?

37) Can early detection and surveillance systems be developed to predict and mitigate the spread of zoonotic diseases?

38) How do social and cultural factors influence human behaviors that contribute to zoonotic disease transmission?

39) And can strategies be implemented to improve global pandemic preparedness?


Are you a data fanatic? Bioinformatics involves developing computational tools and techniques to analyze and interpret large biological datasets. This enables advancements in genomics, proteomics, and systems biology. So delve into the world of bioinformatics to learn how large-scale genomic and molecular data are revolutionizing biological research.

40) How can machine learning algorithms predict the function of genes based on their DNA sequences?

41) And what computational methods can identify potential drug targets by analyzing protein-protein interactions in large biological datasets?

42) Can bioinformatics tools be used to identify potential disease-causing mutations in human genomes and guide personalized medicine approaches?

43) What are the challenges and opportunities in analyzing “omics” data (genomics, proteomics, transcriptomics) to uncover novel biological insights?

44) Or how can bioinformatics contribute to our understanding of microbial diversity, evolution, and interactions within ecosystems?

Regenerative medicine

While definitely not one of the easy biology research topics, regenerative medicine will appeal to those interested in healthcare. Research innovative approaches to stimulate tissue and organ regeneration, using stem cells, tissue engineering, and biotechnology. And while you’re at it, discover the next potential medical breakthrough.

45) How can stem cells be directed to differentiate into specific cell types for tissue regeneration, and what factors influence this process?

46) Or what are the potential applications of 3D bioprinting in creating functional tissues and organs for transplantation?

47) How can bioengineered scaffolds enhance tissue regeneration and integration with host tissues?

48) What are the ethical considerations surrounding the use of stem cells and regenerative therapies in medical treatments?

49) And can regenerative medicine approaches be used to treat neurodegenerative disorders and restore brain function?

Biology Research Topics – Final thoughts

So as you take your next steps, try not to feel overwhelmed. And instead, appreciate the vast realm of possibilities that biology research topics offer. Because the array of biology topics to research is as diverse as the ecosystems it seeks to understand. And no matter if you’re only looking for easy biology research topics, or you’re itching to unravel the mysteries of plant-microbe interactions, your exploration will continue to deepen what we know of the world around us.